Task 2 – Teaching Strategy cards

Collaboration > Task 2 - Teaching Strategy cards

Hi Folks. We can’t start on Task 2 until we’ve dealt with any consequences of Task 1. The deadline for Task 1 is today (Thursday, Feb 4th), so I’ll write to you with the outcome of Task 1 on the morning of Friday, Feb 5th, then open the wiki for editing. Sorry I wasn’t clearer. Best wishes, Tony.

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No. Initials Title Learning theory Theorist Content Impact on

Emotional Learning Elements

Flow Self-efficacy Self-regulation Risk taking Discovery Preparedness Social assimilation Curiosity Reason to learn
1 TD Step-by-step Behaviourism Skinner Break down your chosen topic and the lesson content into ‘bite-sized’ pieces, i.e. A, B, C…

Ensure learners can demonstrate understanding/recall/apply/use (as appropriate) ‘A’ before moving on to ‘B’, and so on. Be sure to reward learners’ observable successes.

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2 TD Scientific experiment ? ? Teach learners how to design a research experiment: hypothesis, experimental strategy, data collection and conclusion.

After carrying out their own experiment, ask learners to swap with a peer and carry out theirs.

Finally, ask them to compare results and draw conclusions from the comparison.

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3 JL ‘Quescussion’ ? ?Piagets Ask learners to contribute to a ‘quescussion’.

Cannot make a statement or share an opinion, must critically think and answer with another question related to the main question.

For example:

What is wrong with the education system today? Can only answer with own question, i.e:

1. Why do we test children at age 11 for academic selection?

2. Is the lack of physical education in school contributing to obesity issues in society?

Finally, host a dotmocracy, students vote by placing a dot beside the question they wish to explore and discuss in more detail.

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4 JL Student-generated test questions ? ?

Ask learners to brainstorm possible exam questions and create questions with model answers on a given topic.

Ask learners (peers) to respond to their questions. Learners evaluate answers and assess peer responses then provide feedback comparing to their own model answer.

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5 PH Think – pair – share Social constructivist

 

Cognitivist

Vygotsky

Introduce a topic and give learners time to think and write down everything they know about it, you can determine the timeframe –  developing their retrieval skills.

Next, put the students in pairs, this promotes discussion, collaboration and negotiation, ask them to add more or discard ones that they agree are irrelevant – this develops elaborative exploration and negotiation    

Next, the pair become a four, to further share ideas, clarification and explanations – develops critical analysis. 

Finally, divide the key points give each group one to discuss and evaluate.  They should capture their learning in a way that can be shared, this can be taken further if you add peer assessment to the final answer.  for example a Padlet.

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6 PH Builds knowledge through problem solving Cognitivism Piaget

Bruner

Asubel

Students actively build their understanding through the teacher setting problems to be solved by students develops independent learning  

Encourages retrieval of information and then provides opportunities to build understanding of a topic develops critical analysis skills.

Attempts to relate to real-life situations and examples increasing the relevance to students – develops application to practice  

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7 KLB Learning is doing Social Participation/Situated Learning Communities of practice (C0P) Wenger 1. Develop a detailed plan that includes activities, expected outcomes i.e., detailed task list/words of the week/create vignette/start discussion

2. Develop a timeline, reporting procedures.

3. Draw CoP members into discussion/Increase participation

4. Frame questions. Probe, ask, clarify keep discussions on topic ,

5. Pay attention to details that show you value individuals

6. Identity and post resources (people, publications, reports) that will

support the community during its initial development

7. Evaluate progress – timed Share results– Disseminate what was created and learned

8.Address challenges immediately

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8 KLB Principles of instruction Metacognition Rosenshine
  1. Goals/objectives are clear to the students
  2. time allocated for instruction
  3. content covered is extensive
  4. Monitor students’ performance
  5. questions are set at a low cognitive level to produce many correct responses
  6. feedback to students is immediate and academically orientated
  7. the teacher controls the instructional goals
  8. the teacher chooses material appropriate for the student’s level
  9. the teacher paces the teaching
  10. interaction is structured but not authoritarian
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9 KLB Visible Learning Visible learning theory Hattie J The teacher decides on learning intentions and success criteria make them transparent to students and demonstrates them by modeling. The teacher checks for understanding, and at the end of each lesson revisits what was covered and ties it all together

The teacher presents a worked example and explains each step by scaffolding the learning, worked examples support skill acquisition and reduce a learner’s cognitive load. Later, students can use worked examples during independent practice, and to review and embed new knowledge.

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10 KLB Working together Social Participation Lev Vygotsky’s Give example so tasks of varying difficulties to determine the level of which to begin instruction, relate to real situations.  Use Zone of proximal, focus on the lower limit, so students can reach goals/objectives with support

Students work collaboratively in small groups and everyone participates in a learning task. Collaborative learning is supported by designing meaningful tasks of varying difficulties. Students negotiate roles, responsibilities, and outcomes.

Guide and motivate students working in groups, apply ideas and foster peer learning

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11 KLB Break down the learning process Metacognition Flavell J. Identify what they already know.

Teach problem-solving, involve them and tell them what they learned.

Ask students to communicate their knowledge, skills, and abilities to a specific audience, such as another group.

Set goals and monitor their progress.

Evaluate and revise their own work.

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12 KLB I do, you do, we do Direct Instruction Becker & Engelmann Review Previous lesson

Show your students what exactly they have to learn and what is expected from them, lesson objectives. Present New Instruction via Demonstration or modeling – Use clear and guided instructions, so students can begin absorbing the new material. The lesson content organized step-by-step, with the steps building on each other.

Guided Practice Here, together with the practice concept together the student attempts the skill with the assistance of the teacher and other students. The guided practice is conducted by the teacher. who guides initial practice, correct mistakes, reteach (if necessary), and provide practice so that students can work independently? Questions (Convergent)- Answer, give responses e.g. What is the common theme here?
​What is the single most important point that has been made?
Feedback/Corrects Evaluation/Review

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13 KLB Co-operation Social Learning Bandura Organise the class into mixed-ability groups, each group needs to be able to see each other, members are expected to support each other, responsibility is shared and help each other. If everyone stuck they ask the teacher. – students follow a sustained piece of individual work – a series of structured worksheets or booklet for example M M L/M M M M M/H M M
14 JFL Conversion Cognitive Load Theory John Sweller
  • Ask students to look at a piece of text
  • Ask students to convert the text into a different format

Examples may include from text to mind map, storyboard or ranked bullets. Or turn any into text.

Students will be able to convert a story in target language into a story board.

 

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16 JFL Distillation Social Constructivism Vygotsky
  • Teacher draws a filter tunnel and a beaker on the board
  • Pair students with a text
  • Instruct the students to find the most important words
  • First pair writes chosen words in the filter tunnel
  • Every pair then adds ONLY words that are NOT already in the filter tunnel
  • Debate which words to let through into the beaker
  • Agreed filtered words become the basis for notes

Students will be able to distil the meaning of a text through filtration

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17 PH Paired peer explanation Social constructivism

 

Cognitivism

Vygotsky

 

 

Bruner

First – Produce pre-prepared questions to be asked at chunked intervals in the session.

At the intended interval give out the questions to the class and they initially work on them individually to determine what they have learned. Tests understanding and promote long-term memory through retrieval.

Next students are then paired and explain their answers to each other, they then decide if they agree, or want to produce an improved joint answer develops explanation skills. 

Then nominate pairs to share their answers with the whole class to develop explanation and listening skills.

Finally provide time for students to improve their answers.

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18 JFL Go Large Social Constructivism Vygotsky
  • Clear the desks and create a circle of chairs.
  • Use the central arena and ask a student/s to demonstrate a teaching point on a large scale with a range of materials. For example, the ignition of a car.
  • While building the model use other students’ suggestions and your own commentary to explain what goes where and why.
  • Repeat (as many times as required), with the students giving feedback at the end.

Students will be able to develop their interdependence and use their senses by building a model ignition of a car

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19 HJ Scaffolding  Social Constructivism 

 

 

Bruner  Provide a variety of tailored aids (usually visual) to support each learner to reach their learning objectives. Some will need more/less scaffolding than others. Some will need the scaffolding removed as they get more confidentSome will need it put back in place if they get a bit wobbly. Like learning to ride a bike with stabilisers. 

Ensure each learner can reach their learning goals using the appropriate support to work towards independent learning and self-confidence. 

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20 HJ I do, we do, you do  Social Constructivism 

 

 

Vygotsky The teacher first models the task (I do), then the student completes the task together with the teacher through guided practice (we do). Gradually, the teacher releases responsibility and the student does the task on their own (you do).   

Ensure learners are provided the balance between support and freedom by assessing their ongoing abilities and adapting accordingly. Ensure that students can demonstrate their learning and skill by doing the task alone by the end of the lesson.  

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21 HJ Project-based learning Constructivism Dewey  Convert a real-world problem/challenge into a project that the students learn through, rather than just do. Teacher acts as facilitator who coaches the students, as they collaborate to solve the problem. Learning comes alive! 

Ensure the project is meaningful and captures students’ interest by letting them lead. Students develop thinking and collaboration skills beneficial in the workplace, as they acquire and apply new knowledge in a problem-solving context. 

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22 DP Application of theory Cognitive Piaget Deliver theory A. Ask learners to apply A to new scenarios provided, justifying their rationale in relation to the theory A H

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23 DP Self marked answers Behaviourist Pavlov

Skinner

 

Learners are provided with specific questions that they must provide a written answer to. Learners are then provided with a mark scheme that they must assess their response against. Learners make an association between their own response and the mark scheme and are ‘rewarded’ with marks gained H

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24 DP Quiz with prizes Behaviourist Skinner Learners must participate in a quiz (can be anonymous) where prizes/rewards are offered. Scores from the quiz can be used to identify gaps in knowledge and direct further learning activities L M M M L L M M M
25 HJ Communities of practice Social Constructivism Wenger 

and/or

Lave 

Encourage a community of practice where students learn in a social context with others who share their specialist interests. An informal advice network where students learn through relationships between their peers and community practitioners. Like a sophisticated enthusiast’s club! 

Be sure to nurture the community of practice and allow it to develop its own identity through its membersLearners will transfer good practice and develop professional skills. 

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26 PH Retrieval grid Cognitivist

First, produce a question grid that covers a variety of topics that have been covered over a few weeks.

Each question is given a point-based upon how long ago the topic was covered, for example, last week would be 1 point, in the first half-term this might be 5 points.

The students are given a set amount of time to answer as many questions as possible, without looking at their notes. This promotes deliberate recall of information and complex thinking, as well as identifying gaps in knowledge.

The teacher then uses nominated questioning for the answers, this can provide an opportunity to add extension questions, this promotes deeper learning.

27 KLB Chunking Cognitivist Miller Chunking Process

Break larger amounts of information into small units

Identify similarities or patterns

Organize the information

Group information into manageable units

For example, birthdays are not recalled 11261995 or 11/26/1995

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28 MH 3 way matching Take a particular topic and construct 3 groups of matching cards that describe features of the same example.

Students must match the 3 relevant matching cards and argue why they match. As an extension students can add to their matches with a 4th feature.

Assessment is then of 3 / 4 points of knowledge and the link between these

Students should match these cards on large sugar paper so the cards can be moved around and they can annotate what they are doing.

Students work in pairs / 3s

 

Maths example – topic straight line graphs

One group of cards has the equation of the straight line

One group of cards has the sketches of the graphs with where graph crosses axis and the gradient

One group of cards has a set of coordinates that sit on the line

Extension may include equations of lines that are parallel or perpendicular

Here the assessment is for interpreting straight line graphs visually, interpreting equations, rearranging equations, substitution into equations.

For the teacher, the assessment is very visual. This type or activity stimulates discussion and argument and pulls on a range of students’ skills thereby broadening accessibility.

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29 MH Categorising Students are given a set of 20 cards with names / statements / facts on students have to categorise these cards based on their own criteria (teacher can set number of categories). Students work in groups of 3

 

History example – monarchs

Write the names of 20 monarchs on the 20 cards e.g. Elizabeth I , Henry V, Victoria, Charles II, Mary, Edward VI, George III, William I, Harold II etc

Minimum number of categories = 4. Students group according to their own categories and explain category.

Categories could include any of

  • Religious beliefs
  • Had an heir
  • Executed
  • Invaded countries
  • Periods of rebellion
  • Foreign policy
  • Architecture
  • Industry
  • Public health
  • Fashion
  • Places of burial
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30 MH Knowledge review Working as a group, teacher put a single simple word, statement, diagram, picture on the board / display. Students come to the board / display to add anything relevant or related to what is on the board, explaining why. The additions to the board can be related to anything that is now on the board

 

Biology example – animal cell

Teacher write Animal Cell on board.

Students have free rein to write / draw anything on the board that is related to the animal cell. They must say why. Contributions might include: mitochondrian, nucleus, osmosis, DNA, etc

This might then lead to other cell structures or could go down the route of Watson and Crick (for DNA), Miescher, Levene…

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31 MH Race against the clock Consider a set of facts / absolutes that have to be known and remembered by students. At a fixed point in each lesson get students to list these facts in a fixed period of time. There should be a ceiling number of facts.

When the time is up students feedback to the teacher on how many facts they did not get.

Over a period of lessons, reduce the time allowed to complete the task. Where possible increase the number of facts expected to be listed.

 

Maths example – Times Table challenge

Students complete a 12×12 multiplication grid in 5 minutes. They feedback on how many they have not achieved. Where students complete the grid, students must complete a 13×13 grid next time.

After a few weeks, reduce the time to 4 minutes and return to 12×12 grids. Repeat

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32 IB/HH Modelling Cognitivism Bandura
Modelling allows the teacher to guide the students on how to approach a given question or problem with the tool of a worked out example.

The teacher goes through the individual elements of a problem highlighting key aspects of the method/answer. The teacher will emphasise the critical points where common mistakes may occur.

The student observes and takes notes. The student may be asked questions to ensure that understanding of each element has been understood.

The model or exemplar is used by the student to support gradual demonstration of independent practice.

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33 IB/HH Socratic questioning Constructivism Sweller/Kirschner
This method of questioning takes the concept of minimally guided instruction. Meaning, that by guiding students construct their own solutions the learning is richer as the student has to form links and connections independently.

Based on the Socrates’ philosophy of persistent questioning and that the teacher’s role is to guide the student in their own discovery and understanding through a course of leading questions. This method of interrogation asks “why” and “how” questions as well as “what”, “where”, “when” and “who” questions. The continuous challenging dialogue supports the student’s ability to acquire critical thinking skills.

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34 IB/HH Elaboration Cognitivism Ausubel
This study skill examines the need to probe for further information to ensure that learning is secure and develops a sense of fluency. The idea of expanding understanding forces the student to examine links and connections between prior and new knowledge. There are a number of methods to elaborate and expand understanding but an effective method of elaborative interrogation is asking questions. Simply asking “how” and “why”. Encouraging students to explain and describe supports students to be able to attach experience to learning, to justify learning and ultimately to have a rich ability to show confidence and fluency.
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35 IB/HH Retrieval Practice Cognitivism The Learning Scientist
Retrieval practice checks understanding intermittently throughout a class, a term or a whole course. Crucially, it requires the student to retrieve knowledge without any information to hand. It relies upon the planning of teaching content and testing understanding of the content. This is done on a low-stakes basis; namely through quizzes, questioning, flashcards, think-pair-share and many other classroom methods of checking for understanding. It has been proven that regular testing of knowledge supports the success of students in the high stakes summative assessment.
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36 IB/HH Spaced Practice Cognitivism Bruner Revisit learning at set periods throughout the curriculum, allowing time to forget. Recall and go deeper by linking knowledge and skills.

Students will develop stronger recall and retention; they will assimilate new knowledge easier through activating and linking to prior knowledge

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37 IB/HH Hexagonal Learning Cognitivism Bruner
A method that allows student group discussion to develop connections in understanding. Students begin by identifying key words, terminology etc. They learn the concepts or ideas behind these. They then make associations or connections and are able to justify these through critical thinking.

Students use laminated, or electronic hexagons. They write key words, terminology, factual knowledge, ideas, equations etc on an individual hexagon. As learning progresses, they create more. The impact comes from students initially being able to explain the concepts behind each hexagon, then searching for associations and linking and transferring new knowledge to prior knowledge and explaining the associations through critical thinking skills. This allows students to explore individually and collaboratively to make sense and attain ownership of their understanding.

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38 IB/HH Mind Mapping Command Verbs Cognitivism Bloom B
Creating a supporting structure or model to help students tackle exam-based type questions.  Students journey through and develop their understanding of the command verbs from Blooms taxonomy, in order. As we journey through, tasks become more cognitively demanding, the starting point is always the base of Blooms model. Firstly we identify, list or state what we are going to describe or explain, giving more detail, purpose, fact and reasons. From that key information we can move onto comparing, contrasting, justification and evaluation.

 

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39 IB/HH Scaffolding Constructivism Vygotsky
Support students as they learn new skills, knowledge or concepts by providing a map, stepping stones or scaffold so that that they can clearly recognise the path to success. Ensure they are aware that one day the support will have to be removed. This can be done piece by piece.  Provide instructional support for students thinking as they journey towards independence. Students demonstrate competence and problem solving strategies in manageable chunks and develop increased motivation as they move from guided practice to independent practice.
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40 IB/HH Using Advanced Organisers Cognitivism Ausubel
A graphic organiser is a visual tool that supports students to connect new knowledge to existing knowledge and see the relationship between individual chunks of learning, ideas or concepts. Students start with factual or background knowledge as their foundation for their graphic organiser and develop these throughout the length of study of a topic or subject by adding connections of more complex or abstract ideas. Students use their graphic organisers to activate prior knowledge, practice retrieval and partake in group elaboration activities as their knowledge develops.
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41 CLB Discovery Learning Cognitivism Jerome Bruner Inquiry-Based Learning which encourages learners to build on past experiences and knowledge, use their intuition, imagination and creativity, and search for new information to discover facts, correlations and new truths. H H H L H L L H M/H
42 CLB Pyramid Discussion Constructivism

Vygotsky

A speaking activity which allows learners to build on agreeing, disagreeing, negotiation, summarizing and putting forward an argument. Learners form progressively larger groups as they carry out a speaking task which requires each grouping to reach agreement before joining up with another group.

 For example: In small groups, learners have to agree on the most important of the five senses or the most influential leader of the 20th century, etc. They then join with another group and have to agree again, before joining up with the next group, and so forth, until the whole class is involved in one discussion. This activity can also be used in a more graduated approach and learners narrow down on a topic from for example the top five most influential leaders, then top three and finally through discussion/negotiation, etc. agreeing on the most influential.   

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43 HJ Unconditional Positive Regard  Humanism  Jung The teacher consistently demonstrates belief in the students and their abilities, no matter what. The students can make mistakes, misbehave and fail but the teacher’s role is to remain steadfast in their view that the student is capable and competent.  

Ensure a learning culture of empathy and trust to enable students to feel empowered, recognised and grow their self-confidence. Be sure to follow up any necessary discipline with positive reinforcement.  

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44 CLB Jigsaw Technique Social constructivism

Dewey

Vygotsky

Cooperative learning technique which organizes classrooms into groups with each group receiving a piece of the task/assignment. A successful outcome to the task is heavily reliant on learners collaborating together to gather and exchange information from each of the groups and then assembling and piecing together the information into the correct order/format (jigsaw). L M M/H M/H H L H L L/M
45 CB Round Robin Social Constructivism Kagan Teacher assigns a topic or question with multiple possible answers.

In teams, students respond orally, each in turn taking about the same amount of time. (30 seconds each) Here learners have to summarise, analyse and respond to the other students’ comments

Variations can include:

  • All Write Round Robin: each student records each other student’s answer on their own paper.
  • All Write Consensus: after reaching consensus, each student records each other student’s answer on their own paper.
  • Think-Write-RoundRobin: students think about their response, then independently write it down before the RoundRobin
  • Single Round Robin: the team does just one round of sharing, each teammate getting one turn.
  • Continuous Round Robin: each student adds to discussion/list. Goes around many times.
  • Timed Round Robin: each student shares in turn for a specified time.

Comments

  1. Lesley
    February 10, 2021 @ 09:09 am

    Feel free to have a look through and amend, can’t seem to turn them red, but feel I have to look at the emotional states again

The comments are closed.